What are parental rights and responsibilities (PRRs)?
Parents have many responsibilities and rights to their children, including the responsibility and right to protect and encourage their child’s health, welfare, and development, to have a say in where the child lives, to be involved in their upbringing, to act as the child’s legal representative, and to maintain personal relations and contact with the child even if they do not live with them.
What parental responsibilities do fathers have if their names are not on the birth certificate?
A father who is not married to the child’s mother and does not appear on the birth certificate will not have parental responsibilities or rights for the child unless he is granted them by the court or he and the child’s mother have gone through into a formal arrangement. Fathers named on birth certificates born on or after May 4, 2006 have full parental rights and responsibilities.
Is it lawful for a mother to keep her child from the father?
According to the law, while making any decision involving a child, the court must prioritise the child’s best interests. When parents make decisions about their children, the well-being of the child should be given priority. It is not about what is best for mom or dad, but about what is best for the child.
There is a significant number of data that shows that it is better for a child if both parents are involved in their life. Indeed, in some countries, shared parental care is the default position following divorce, but when parents divorce in Scotland, there may be a resident parent (with whom the child spends the majority of their time) and a ‘contact’ parent (with whom the child may have residential, non-residential, and holiday contact). Shared care, in which parents share all parenting and are involved in all parts of their children’s lives (although not always spending equal time with the child), is becoming more popular in Scotland.
If a parent possesses PRRs and there are not sufficient reasons to discontinue contact (for example, domestic abuse, alcohol or drug abuse), the relationship between a father and child should be promoted and contact must take place. Even if one parent (mother or father) experiences such issues, if contact can be made safely, it may be better for the child to keep a relationship with that parent than to have no interaction at all.
Can a mother take her child away from the father?
If you plan to go abroad with your child, you must seek the other parent’s consent to remove the child from the United Kingdom (assuming the other parent possesses PRRs). If he or she refuses to approve, an application to the court for authorization to relocate with the child outside the United Kingdom must be made.
The decision to move a child is a difficult balancing act in which (as stated above) the child’s welfare is the most important concern. When evaluating relocation applications, the court will conduct a welfare assessment to determine whether or not relocation is in the best interests of the child.
According to one point of view, if a parent plans on moving within the United Kingdom, this is a decision that can be made without the consent of the other parent. That, however, would be contradictory to the duty to consult the other parent on major welfare choices. Recently, courts in the United Kingdom have treated domestic relocations similarly to overseas relocations. If the other parent disagrees with it, the parent considering the transfer may be expected to file an application with the court. It is worth emphasising that the remaining parent has the right to petition the court for an order stopping the move.
As with any situation involving children, it is usually preferable if parents can discuss the potential relocation openly and reach an agreement directly, or attempt to do so through mediation, rather than contacting the court.
What kind of contact does a father have?
This question does not have a ‘one size fits all’ answer. Every situation is unique, based on characteristics such as family habits, geography, job schedules, and personal circumstances. Once again, the welfare of the child comes first. Some children, particularly very young children and newborns, respond well to ‘little and frequent’ interaction, whereas other families prefer a shared care’ or ‘week around’ pattern.
Whatever routine is implemented, it should be reviewed frequently with parents to ensure that it works well for the child and that they are happy and established in the routine. What children think is extremely important. Parents should consider thoroughly discussing their separation with their children together, if possible, and in a child-friendly manner. The details are irrelevant and may even be upsetting to the child, but what matters is assuring the child of their parents’ continuous love. Children need clear, realistic information about where everyone will live, as well as what will happen with school, interests, and friendships. Even very young children have the right to be heard under the law. Parents should consider their child’s opinions and feelings regarding life after separation without making final decisions that burden them.